Table 2

Primary and secondary outcomes at baseline, 1 month and 2 months after as well as within-group mean scores by randomised treatment assignment

OutcomesTimeline scores and within-group change scores: mean±SD (95% CI)
Dry needlingPlacebo needlingControl
Mean intensity of menstrual pain (VAS, 0–100)*
 Baseline65.4±19.4 (57.9 to 72.9)65.5±13.1 (57.2 to 73.8)62.1±14.3 (54.5 to 69.7)
 One month after28.8±21.9 (18.1 to 39.548.7±26.5 (37.1 to 60.3)51.5±19.5 (40.8 to 62.2)
 Change baseline → 1 month−36.6±20.1 (-47.1 to 26.1)−16.8±22.3 (-29.1 to 4.4)−10.6±16.0 (−18.6 to –2.6)
 Two months after29.4±22.5 (18.4 to 40.4)55.5±22.6 (43.5 to 67.5)46.2±24.1 (35.3 to 56.9)
 Change baseline → 2 months−36.0±14.2 (-43.2 to 28.8)−10.0±22.1 (-22.3 to 2.3)−15.9±22.1 (−26.9 to–4.9)
Number of days with menstrual pain
 Baseline2.3±1.1 (1.7 to 2.9)2.3±1.5 (1.7 to 2.9)2.5±0.8 (2.0 to 3.0)
 One month after1.8±0.7 (1.4 to 2.2)2.0±3.0 (1.4 to 2.6)2.2±0.9 (1.8 to 2.6)
 Change baseline → 1 month−0.5±0.7 (−0.7 to 0.3)−0.3±1.5 (-1.1 to 0.5)−0.3±0.8 (-0.6 to 0.0)
 Two months after1.8±1.1 (1.2 to 2.4)2.0±1.5 (1.6 to 2.4)2.4±0.8 (1.8 to 3.0)
 Change baseline → 2 months−0.5±1.0 (−0.8 to 0.2)−0.3±0.9 (−0.9, 0.3)−0.1±0.7 (−0.2 to 0.0)
Number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs*
 Baseline4.7±3.9 (3.0 to 6.5)4.1±2.9 (2.6 to 5.6)4.2±2.6 (3.1 to 5.1)
 One month after1.4±1.8 (0.4 to 2.4)3.1±1.8 (2.0 to 4.2)3.2±3.3 (1.9 to 4.5)
 Change baseline → 1 month−3.3±1.5 (−4.1 to 2.5)−1.0±2.3 (−2.3 to 0.3)−1.0±2.0 (−2.5 to 0.5)
 Two months after1.1±1.5 (0.2 to 2.0)3.0±3.1 (1.5 to 4.5)3.1±3.3 (1.8 to 4.4)
 Change baseline → 2 months−3.6±2.1 (−4.7 to 2.5)−1.1±1.5 (−2.5 to 0.3)−1.1±2.0 (−2.6 to 0.4)
Physical Component Score SF-36 (0–100)
 Baseline50.7±6.9 (47.7 to 53.7)52.0±4.5 (48.7 to 55.3)51.5±6.2 (48.6 to 54.4)
 One month after53.7±5.4 (51.0 to 56.4)51.8±7.3 (48.8 to 54.8)53.7±4.1 (51.1 to 56.3)
 Change baseline → 1 month3.0±6.3 (−0.2 to 6.2)−0.2±5.2 (-3.3 to 2.9)2.2±5.9 (−0.7 to 5,1)
 Two months after54.9±4.6 (52.3 to 57.5)51.5±8.2 (48.5 to 54.5)54.6±2.6 (52.0 to 57.2)
 Change baseline → 2 months4.2±5.8 (1.2 to 7.2)−0.5±5.2 (−3.6 to 2.6)3.1±7.4 (−0.5 to 6.7)
Mental Component Score SF-36 (0–100)
 Baseline51.5±6.0 (48.3 to 54.7)53.3±4.1 (49.6 to 57.0)48.1±8.3 (44.9 to 51.3)
 One month after49.6±7.4 (46.0 to 53.2)54.3±3.0 (50.2 to 58.4)47.8±9.4 (44.3 to 51.3)
 Change baseline → 1 month−1.9±6.0 (−4.9 to 1.1)1.0±4.0 (-1.3 to 3.3)−0.3±10.6 (−5.4 to 5.0)
 Two months after51.1±7.6 (47.6 to 54.6)54.2±4.6 (50.3 to 58.1)47.8±7.8 (44.5 to 51.1)
 Change baseline → 2 months−0.4±7.1 (−4.0 to 3.2)0.9±6.5 (−3.0 to 4.8)−0.3±6.5 (−3.6 to 3.0)
  • *Statistically significant differences among the groups (ANCOVA, P<0.001).