Table 2

Preoperative anxiety and serum cortisol concentration

Timing of outcome measurementAuricular acupuncture
(n=32)
No intervention
(n=30)
State anxietyI (before)49±1544±12
II (evening after intervention)42±1347±11
III (before surgery)47±1453±12
VAS-100 (mm)I50 (13.75–75)50 (10–57.5)
II30 (15–50)50 (30-65)
III30 (15-70)57.5 (30–80)
Serum cortisol (ng/ml)III375±153390±150
  • Data presented as mean±SD or median (IQR).

  • VAS-100, visual analogue scale 100 mm.