Table 3

Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores across study time points

VariablesWaitlist (n=32)Within-group effect sizeAcupuncture (n=96)Within-group effect sizeCombined (n=96)Within-group effect sizeAcupuncture versus waitlistCombined versus waitlistAcupuncture versus combined
Mean±SE* Mean±SE*Mean±SE*p Value†p Value†p Value†
 1 Week after treatment18.8±0.90.2215.4±0.51.0014.3±0.50.84<0.001‡0.001‡0.25
 4 Weeks after treatment19.3±0.90.1115.7±0.60.8914.7±0.50.74<0.001‡0.001‡0.30
 13 Weeks after treatment15.8±0.60.8314.4±0.60.770.62
 1 Week after treatment13.6±0.60.2411.5±0.40.6210.8±0.40.530.030.110.49
 4 Weeks after treatment13.8±0.60.1811.4±0.40.6310.9±0.40.460.020.120.25
 13 Weeks after treatment11.5±0.40.5710.7±0.40.510.66
 1 Week after treatment8.5±0.8−0.127.0±±‡0.28
 4 Weeks after treatment8.4±0.8−0.096.8±±‡0.020.84
 13 Weeks after treatment7.0±±
 1 Week after treatment8.1±0.8−0.106.2±±‡0.33
 4 Weeks after treatment8.5±0.8−0.196.5±±‡0.48
 13 Weeks after treatment6.5±±
  • *Estimated mean and SE from linear mixed-effects model adjusted for last assessment time.

  • †p Value for group by time interaction using linear mixed-effects models.

  • ‡Remain significant on Bonferroni adjustment (p<0.05/3=0.017).