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Standardisation of moxibustion: challenges and future development
  1. Min Yee Lim,
  2. Jian Huang,
  3. Baixiao Zhao
  1. School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Baixiao Zhao, School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 North 3rd Ring Road East, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China; baixiao100{at}


International organisations such as WHO and the International Organization for Standardization are increasingly committed to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Moxibustion is an integral modality of acupuncture that has been in use for thousands of years. It stands out as a health choice due to its potential effects in disease prevention, health promotion and maintenance, as well as affordability and accessibility. As the use of moxibustion increases, concerns are being raised regarding its safety and quality. The need to establish standards to protect patient safety is paramount in all medical fields. As a form of medical practice, it is essential to develop moxibustion standards in the areas of terminology, moxibustion products, treatment rooms and practice to ensure its harmonisation and safe usage. The evidence base guiding policy and decision making has to be based on evidence from basic and clinical research. Promoting strategic basic and clinical research on the safety and effectiveness of moxibustion will answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding moxibustion, create a climate of awareness and acceptance and, in turn, drive its standardisation.


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