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The effectiveness of acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee – a systematic review
  1. Adrian White
  1. Peninsula Medical School, Plymouth, UK
  1. Nadine Foster
  1. DH primary care career scientist, Primary Care Musculoskeletal Research Centre, Keele University, UK
  1. Mike Cummings
  1. BMAS, Royal London, Homeopathic Hospital, London, UK
  1. Panos Barlas
  1. Primary Care Musculoskeletal Research Centre, Keele University, UK
  1. adrian.white{at}


Objective To determine the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for pain and function of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

Methods A systematic review of randomised controlled trials was performed, including a meta-analysis which combined the results of trials that used adequate acupuncture treatment and used WOMAC scores to measure the effect. The internal validity (quality) and heterogeneity of studies were taken into account.

Results Thirteen studies were available, of which eight, involving 2362 patients, could be combined. For both reduction of pain and improvement of function, acupuncture was significantly superior to sham acupuncture (P<0.05 for all comparisons) in both the short term and the long term. Compared with no additional intervention (usual care), acupuncture was again significantly superior for pain and function. The treatment effects were maintained after taking account of quality and heterogeneity in sensitivity analyses.

Conclusion Acupuncture is an effective treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee. Its overall effect size is 0.8, and it can be considered instead of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for patients whose symptoms are not controlled by education, exercise, weight loss if appropriate and simple analgesics. Further research is necessary into the most efficient way of delivering acupuncture, and its longer term benefits.

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