Table 1

Practitioner and patient blinding indices (BIs) and blinding scenarios for the use of Takakura needles in double blinding

StudyStudy I3 Study II4 Study III5 Study IV6 Study V7 Total
Takakura et al 2007Takakura et al 2008aTakakura et al 2008bTakakura et al 2013Vase et al 2015
IaIb
Number of participants10
practitioners,
1 subject
1 practitioner,
60 subjects
1 practitioner,
114 subjects
1 practitioner,
30 subjects
1 practitioner,
109 subjects
6 practitioners,
67 patients
Practitioner blindingPenetrating
real needles
Number170 needles60 needles114 needles60 needles109 needles32 treatments
BI−0.050.17−0.22−0.470.060.56−0.05
95% CI−0.19 to 0.08−0.08 to
0.42
−0.40 to
−0.04
−0.69 to
−0.24
−0.12 to
0.25
0.28 to
0.85
−0.13 to 0.03
Skin-touch placebo needlesNumber230
needles
60 needles114 needles109 needles35 treatments
BI0.060.000.00−0.120.710.05
95%CI−0.06 to
0.18
−0.25 to
0.25
−0.18 to
0.18
−0.31 to
0.07
0.48 to
0.95
−0.04 to
0.13
Blinding scenarioRandom/
random
Random/
random
Opposite/
random
Opposite/-Random/
random
Unblinded/
unblinded
Random/
random
Patient blindingPenetrating
real needles
Number114 needles60 needles109 needles32 treatments
BI0.370.330.560.380.43
95% CI0.20 to
0.54
0.09 to
0.57
0.40 to
0.72
0.05 to
0.70
0.33 to
0.53
Skin-touch placebo needlesNumber114 needles109 needles35 treatments
BI−0.120.190.200.05
95% CI−0.30 to
0.06
0.01 to
0.38
−0.12 to
0.52
−0.07 to 0.18
Blinding scenarioUnblinded/
random
Unblinded/-Unblinded/
random
Unblinded/
unblinded
Unblinded/
random