Table 2

Sleep diary and actigraph measures across study time points

VariablesWaitlist (n=32)Within-group effect sizeAcupuncture (n=96)Within-group effect sizeCombined (n=96)Within-group effect sizeAcupuncture versus waitlistCombined versus waitlistAcupuncture versus combined
Mean±SE*Mean±SE*Mean±SE*p Value†p Value†p Value†
Sleep diary SE
 Baseline60.8±2.657.8±1.560.8±1.5
 1 Week after treatment64.6±2.8−0.2564.6±1.5−0.4564.7±1.5−0.260.210.960.07
 4 Weeks after treatment63.3±2.8−0.1764.9±1.6−0.4665.7±1.6−0.310.080.420.20
 13 Weeks after treatment65.4±1.7−0.4866.8±1.7−0.380.39
Sleep diary TST
 Baseline297.1±13.7285.4±7.9292.4±7.9
 1 Week after treatment313.5±14.3−0.21320.2±8.0−0.45310.3±8.0−0.230.140.890.04
 4 Weeks after treatment306.6±14.5−0.12322.4±8.5−0.46312.6±8.4−0.250.04‡0.360.08
 13 Weeks after treatment321.0±9.0−0.43325.4±8.7−0.410.82
Actigraphy SE
 Baseline78.3±1.778.5±1.077.5±1.0
 1 Week after treatment79.1±1.9−0.0780.1±1.0−0.1578.3±1.0−0.080.690.960.54
 4 Weeks after treatment76.4±1.80.1980.0±1.2−0.1379.4±1.1−0.180.180.130.80
 13 Weeks after treatment79.7±1.3−0.1077.8±1.2−0.030.59
Actigraphy TST
 Baseline388.9±11.9401.7±6.9378.6±6.9
 1 Week after treatment381.4±13.30.11393.1±7.40.12375.9±7.20.040.890.690.52
 4 Weeks after treatment370.1±13.20.27393.0±8.60.11383.1±8.0−0.060.520.140.26
 13 Weeks after treatment393.0±9.50.11374.9±8.80.050.72
  • *Estimated mean and SE from linear mixed-effects model adjusted for last assessment time, which are different from the last observation carried forward method.

  • †p Value for group by time interaction using linear mixed-effects models.

  • ‡Non-significant on Bonferroni adjustment.

  • SE, sleep efficiency; TST, total sleep time.