Table 3

Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores across study time points

VariablesWaitlist (n=32)Within-group effect sizeAcupuncture (n=96)Within-group effect sizeCombined (n=96)Within-group effect sizeAcupuncture versus waitlistCombined versus waitlistAcupuncture versus combined
Mean±SE* Mean±SE*Mean±SE*p Value†p Value†p Value†
ISI
 Baseline19.9±0.920.3±0.518.4±0.5
 1 Week after treatment18.8±0.90.2215.4±0.51.0014.3±0.50.84<0.001‡0.001‡0.25
 4 Weeks after treatment19.3±0.90.1115.7±0.60.8914.7±0.50.74<0.001‡0.001‡0.30
 13 Weeks after treatment15.8±0.60.8314.4±0.60.770.62
PSQI
 Baseline14.4±0.613.6±0.312.6±0.3
 1 Week after treatment13.6±0.60.2411.5±0.40.6210.8±0.40.530.030.110.49
 4 Weeks after treatment13.8±0.60.1811.4±0.40.6310.9±0.40.460.020.120.25
 13 Weeks after treatment11.5±0.40.5710.7±0.40.510.66
HADS-Anxiety
 Baseline8.0±0.77.7±0.47.1±0.4
 1 Week after treatment8.5±0.8−0.127.0±0.40.166.0±0.40.260.040.01‡0.28
 4 Weeks after treatment8.4±0.8−0.096.8±0.50.216.1±0.50.230.01‡0.020.84
 13 Weeks after treatment7.0±0.50.166.1±0.50.220.57
HADS-Depression
 Baseline7.6±0.76.9±0.46.1±0.4
 1 Week after treatment8.1±0.8−0.106.2±0.40.165.1±0.40.240.050.01‡0.33
 4 Weeks after treatment8.5±0.8−0.196.5±0.50.085.5±0.50.160.050.008‡0.48
 13 Weeks after treatment6.5±0.50.085.4±0.50.180.42
  • *Estimated mean and SE from linear mixed-effects model adjusted for last assessment time.

  • †p Value for group by time interaction using linear mixed-effects models.

  • ‡Remain significant on Bonferroni adjustment (p<0.05/3=0.017).