Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

Variables*Combined
(n=96)
Acupuncture
(n=96)
Waitlist
(n=32)
Total
(n=224)
Age, years53.7±9.553.1±9.553.7±10.753.4±9.6
Female70 (72.9)78 (81.3)21 (65.6)169 (75.4)
Education attainment, years10.7±3.911.0±3.812.1±3.711.0±3.8
Marital status
 Never married12 (12.5)10 (10.4)4 (12.5)26 (11.6)
 Married/cohabiting70 (72.9)69 (71.9)19 (59.4)158 (70.5)
 Divorced/widowed14 (14.6)17 (17.7)9 (28.1)40 (17.9)
Occupation
 Professional and associate professional13 (13.5)7 (7.3)7 (21.9)27 (12.1)
 Skilled and semiskilled worker21 (21.9)21 (21.9)4 (12.5)46 (20.5)
 Unskilled worker10 (10.4)3 (3.1)2 (6.3)15 (6.7)
 Retired16 (16.7)20 (20.8)10 (31.3)46 (20.5)
 Unemployed/houseworker36 (37.5)45 (46.9)9 (28.1)90 (40.2)
Insomnia duration, years12.0±9.913.5±11.211.3±10.512.5±10.6
Previous treatment for insomnia83 (86.5)95 (99.0)31 (96.9)209 (93.3)
 Western medication60 (62.5)68 (70.8)26 (81.3)154 (68.8)
 Psychological treatment12 (12.5)11 (11.5)5 (15.6)28 (12.5)
 OTC drug46 (47.9)58 (60.4)19 (59.4)123 (54.9)
 Chinese herbal medicine7 (7.3)11 (11.5)6 (18.8)24 (10.7)
 Acupuncture21 (21.9)23 (24.0)10 (31.3)54 (24.1)
 Others†25 (26.0)36 (37.5)11 (34.4)72 (32.1)
Psychiatric diagnosis
 Insomnia disorder60 (62.5)60 (62.5)21 (65.6)141 (62.9)
 Major depressive disorder25 (26.0)30 (31.3)10 (31.3)65 (29.0)
 GAD/panic disorder/PTSD10 (10.4)5 (5.2)1 (3.1)16 (7.1)
 Bipolar disorder1 (1.0)1 (1.0)0 (0)2 (0.9)
Current psychotropic medications other than hypnotics29 (30.2)26 (27.1)8 (25.0)63 (28.1)
 SSRI10 (10.4)8 (8.3)2 (6.3)20 (8.9)
 SNRI2 (2.1)0 (0)0 (0)2 (0.9)
 TCA3 (3.1)4 (4.2)1 (3.1)8 (3.6)
 Others5 (5.2)6 (6.3)2 (6.3)13 (5.8)
 Combination9 (9.4)8 (8.3)3 (9.4)20 (8.9)
Equivalent dose of antidepressants in fluoxetine, mg/day19.2±15.520.9±20.319.5±12.119.9±17.0
Current hypnotics32 (33.3)31 (32.3)18 (56.3)81 (36.2)
 Benzodiazepines7 (7.3)1 (1.0)3 (9.4)11 (4.9)
 Non-benzodiazepine14 (14.6)16 (16.7)11 (34.4)41 (18.3)
 Combination4 (4.2)12 (12.5)2 (6.3)18 (8.0)
 Antihistamine or melatonin7 (7.3)2 (2.1)2 (6.3)11 (4.9)
Equivalent dose of hypnotics in diazepam, mg/day6.0±8.66.6±8.56.6±8.56.4±7.7
Chronic medical illnesses‡, §29 (30.2)22 (22.9)15 (46.9)66 (29.5)
ISI total score18.7±4.920.3±4.119.9±4.419.5±4.5
PSQI total score12.7±2.813.7±3.014.5±2.713.4±3.0
HDRS17 total score6.3±3.06.3±2.76.3±2.86.3±2.8
  • *Data are presented as mean ±SD or number (%).

  • †Others included health and dietary products, massage and hypnosis.

  • ‡Participants were receiving regular medications for the illnesses.

  • §Significant group difference (p=0.04, χ2 test).

  • GAD, generalised anxiety disorder; HDRS17, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; ISI, Insomnia Severity Index; OTC, over-the-counter; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; SNRI serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; TCA, tricyclic antidepressant.