Table 1

Comparison of motion parameters for ‘lifting-thrusting’ method

Parameter typeParameterMild reinforcing-attenuatingReinforcingAttenuating
Students
(n=60)
Teachers
(n=30)
Students
(n=60)
Teachers
(n=30)
Students
(n=60)
Teachers
(n=30)
Average motion amplitudeTR-X(cm)0.453±0.192**0.598±0.2610.432±0.156**0.58±0.1960.469±0.195*0.575±0.238
TR-Y(cm)1.186±0.3871.283±0.5301.189±0.435**1.482±0.5761.623±0.363**1.398±0.541
FTR-X(cm)0.523±0.0229*0.722±0.3250.496±0.197**0.689±0.2630.546±0.267*0.671±0.281
FTR-Y(cm)1.162±0.4151.144±0.4211.188±0.5121.215±0.4271.15±0.4291.267±0.497
FMJR-X(cm)0.673±0.355*0.959±0.3740.664±0.279*0.936±0.3460.669±0.366*0.881±0.299
FMJR-Y(cm)1.001±0.3541.023±0.3751.032±0.4561.118±0.4330.981±0.4121.164±0.534
FBJR-X(cm)0.479±0.206*0.586±0.2850.43±0.1410.486±0.250.471±0.2250.479±0.147
FBJR-Y(cm)0.515±0.2080.557±0.4050.55±0.2470.654±0.3450.5±0.1940.607±0.497
FMJRA(rad)†18.87±10.148**27.225±11.06619.876±9.617*29.546±11.37120.994±11.99**27.6±10.238
Average motion velocity and angular velocityTR-X(cm/s)0.318±0.186**0.586±0.5010.275±0.1230.377±0.1610.309±0.1980.373±0.195
TR-Y(cm/s)1.260±0.679**1.619±0.8730.946±0.3981.068±0.250.907±0.3321.013±0.386
FTR-X(cm/s)0.396±0.249*0.77±0.5930.348±0.1870.452±0.250.365±0.221*0.472±0.247
FTR-Y(cm/s)1.273±0.7691.445±0.7820.95±0.4871.272±1.8390.896±0.3880.95±0.363
FMJR-X(cm/s)0.504±0.32**1.022±0.590.471±0.253*0.665±0.3850.46±0.353*0.642±0.356
FMJR-Y(cm/s)1.067±0.6011.304±0.6890.805±0.3960.795±0.2890.754±0.370.853±0.357
FBJR-X(cm/s)0.273±0.133*0.4±0.2280.28±0.1670.278±0.1370.268±0.2380.281±0.136
FBJR-Y(cm/s)0.525±0.3280.611±0.6620.414±0.2130.368±0.1720.334±0.1520.364±0.258
FMJRA(rad/s)‡18.015±11.544*30.175±14.96114.966±8.206*21.542±10.87116.888±10.632*21.806±10.669
Average motion acceleration and angular accelerationTR-X(cm/s2)2.378±1.609**5±5.3952.057±0.926*2.279±1.1272.403±1.865*2.939±1.475
TR-Y(cm/s2)7.665±5.497**11.783±9.9236.021±2.592*6.928±2.3735.852±2.5636.648±2.629
FTR-X(cm/s2)2.747±1.799*6.347±6.2812.607±1.3463.304±1.6672.724±1.733**3.569±1.867
FTR-Y(cm/s2)7.653±6.02910.612±9.6786.026±2.9276.069±1.8095.915±2.7786.426±2.662
FMJR-X(cm/s2)3.29±2.083*7.362±5.4923.351±1.9084.242±2.3953.43±3.173*4.62±2.57
FMJR-Y(cm/s2)6.452±4.5959.386±8.1565.232±2.4295.329±1.6574.963±2.5345.649±2.436
FBJR-X(cm/s2)1.983±1.1*3.022±1.8182.231±1.7212.094±0.8252.17±2.46*2.639±1.855
FBJR-Y(cm/s2)3.392±2.5724.803±7.0042.921±1.5212.596±1.0052.345±1.1162.639±1.855
FMJRA(rad/s2110.6±64**204.6±130103.8±51.2*141.4±72.5120.5±68.1*153.6±72.5
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †Angular degree.

  • ‡Angular velocity.

  • §Angular acceleration.

  • FBJR, forefinger base joint right; FMJR, forefinger middle joint right; FTR, forefinger tip right; TR, thumb right.