Table 1

Sample characteristics

Variables Total (n=205)
Age, years52.4±9.7
Sex, male/female46/159
Education, years10.9±3.7
Marital status
 Never married25 (12.2)
 Married/cohabiting141 (68.6)
 Divorced/widowed39 (19.0)
 Professional and associate professional16 (7.8)
 Skilled and semi-skilled worker43 (21.0)
 Unskilled worker19 (9.3)
 Retired36 (17.6)
 Unemployed/housework91 (44.4)
Insomnia duration, years11.6±9.7
Lifetime psychiatric disorder
 Insomnia disorder100 (48.8)
 MDD/MADD89 (43.4)
 Anxiety disorders/other diagnoses16 (7.8)
Chronic medical illnesses*56 (27.3)
ISI total score19.2±3.9
HADS depression score7.2±4.2
HADS anxiety score8.2±4.5
  • *Participants were on regular medications for medical illnesses.

  • HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; ISI, Insomnia Severity Index; MDD, major depressive disorder; MADD, mixed anxiety depressive disorder.

  • Data are expressed as mean±SD or n (%).