Table 3

Levels of cortisol and endogenous opiates among the participants

TestAcupuncture (n=18)Sham acupuncture (n=17)p Value*
Baseline
 Cortisol level, mean µg/dl (SD)8.0 (4.5)9.2 (5.3)0.47
 β-Endorphin level, mean ng/ml (SD)9.4 (2.7)9.4 (4.1)0.99
 Leucine enkephalin level, mean ng/ml (SD)4.6 (1.6)1.8 (1.4)0.33
10th Session
 Cortisol level, mean mcg/dl (SD)8.4 (3.4)9.9 (4.8)0.29
 β-Endorphin level, mean ng/ml (SD)6.3 (2.7)6.3 (2.1)0.99
 Leucine enkephalin level, mean ng/ml (SD)1.6 (0.6)1.9 (0.5)0.12
20th Session
 Cortisol level, mean mcg/dl (SD)8.9 (4.3)8.7 (3.4)0.88
 β-Endorphin level, mean ng/ml (SD)9.3 (4.1)5.4 (2.2)<0.01
 Leucine enkephalin level, mean ng/ml (SD)6.6 (2.8)1.0 (3.0)<0.01
  • * p Values based on Mann–Whitney U test.