Table 2

Demographics and clinical characteristics of participants recruited into the study

CharacteristicsAcupuncture (N=44)Sham acupuncture (N=45)p Value*
Age, mean years (SD)40.9 (11.0)42.8 (9.4)0.06
Duration of symptoms, mean months (SD)22.4 (28.4)27.5 (26.9)0.80
Living status, N (%)
 Alone14 (31.8)7 (15.6)0.08
 Partnered30 (68.2)38 (84.4)
Employment status, N (%)
 Employed41 (93.2)38 (84.4)0.35
 Unemployed0 (0)1 (2.2)
 Retired3 (6.8)6 (13.3)
Treatment history, N (%)
 None12 (27.3)9 (20.0)0.42
 ≥1 Treatment32 (72.7)36 (80.0)
Other significant medical conditions, N (%)
 None12 (27.3)9 (20.0)0.46
 ≥132 (72.7)36 (80.0)
Needling pain VAS score at baseline, mean (SD)3.8 (2.3)2.1 (2.0)<0.001
Needling pain VAS score at end of treatment, mean (SD)2.5 (1.4)1.8 (1.5)<0.001
  • * p Values based on two- sample t-test;

  • χ2 tests were used.

  • VAS, visual analogue scale.