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Contribution of adenosine to the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow caused by manual acupuncture in rats
  1. Hisashi Shinbara1,
  2. Satomi Nagaoka1,
  3. Yasuyuki Izutani1,
  4. Masamichi Okubo2,
  5. Keisaku Kimura3,
  6. Kunio Mizunuma3,
  7. Eiji Sumiya1
  1. 1Department of Basic Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Meiji University of Integrative Medicine, Nantan-shi, Kyoto, Japan
  2. 2Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo, Japan
  3. 3Department of Health Promoting and Geriatric Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Meiji University of Integrative Medicine, Nantan-shi, Kyoto, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hisashi Shinbara, Department of Basic Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Meiji University of Integrative Medicine, Hiyoshi-cho, Nantan-shi, Kyoto 629-0392, Japan; h_shinbara{at}meiji-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Background and aim Adenosine is believed to play an important role in local acupuncture analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of adenosine to the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (MBF) caused by manual acupuncture (MA).

Methods Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats (310–360 g) were anaesthetised and divided into four equal groups (n=8 each): Saline, Saline+MA, Theophylline, and Theophylline+MA. In the two MA groups, the sparrow-pecking MA technique was applied at 30 repetitions per min for 1 min to a depth of 15–18 mm using a stainless steel acupuncture needle (0.20×40 mm). The stimulus point was located on the right tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 7–8 mm below the knee. Animals in the two theophylline groups were intra-arterially injected with 8-(p-sulphophenyl) theophylline, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, at a dose of 30 mg/kg before MA. Animals in the two saline groups received control saline. Fluorescent microspheres (15 µm in diameter, yellow-green fluorescent) were used for MBF measurement in all four groups.

Results MA of the TA muscle significantly increased MBF (Saline+MA vs Saline: p=0.001; Saline+MA vs Theophylline: p=0.008). Pre-treatment with theophylline appeared to inhibit this increase (Theophylline vs Theophylline+MA; p=1.000). MBF in the Theophylline+MA group was 43% lower than in the Saline+MA group, although this was not significantly different (p=0.104).

Conclusions The results suggest that adenosine leads to an increase in MBF caused by MA. Adenosine may play a role in acupuncture analgesia by washing out algesic substances. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the precise mechanism.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors HS performed all the experiments and wrote the article. SN supported all the experiments. YI was responsible for the experiment involving fluorescence microspheres recovery. MO designed and supported the experiment using the adenosine receptor antagonist. KK and KM provided support for the animal surgery. ES supervised all the experiments.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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