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Validation of the Korean version of the Acupuncture Expectancy Scale
  1. Yun-Ji Kim1,
  2. In-Seon Lee1,
  3. Ho-Sun Kim1,
  4. Hyejung Lee1,
  5. Hi-Joon Park1,
  6. Hyangsook Lee1,
  7. Jun J Mao2,
  8. Younbyoung Chae1
  1. 1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  2. 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Younbyoung Chae, Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea; ybchae{at}


Objectives Expectancy has been shown to affect patients’ responses to acupuncture therapy. However, no validated measure of expectancy for acupuncture is available in the Korean language. The Acupuncture Expectancy Scale (AES), a 4-item self-reporting questionnaire, is the validated instrument for measuring expectancies regarding acupuncture therapy. We translated the AES into Korean and examined its test–retest reliability and construct validity.

Methods The AES was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure. Internal consistency was assessed in 275 participants with item-total correlations. Construct validity was also assessed by performing principal component analysis and correlating scores on the scale with the participants’ intention to receive acupuncture therapy. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 33 participants by calculating Cronbach's α and Spearman rank correlation coefficients.

Results Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α=0.910). Principal component analysis showed that expectancy of acupuncture treatment accounted for 79.2% of the variance. The AES was positively correlated with participants’ intention to receive acupuncture treatment (r=0.695, p<0.001). Test–retest reliability in 33 of the 275 participants was adequate, with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient ranging from 0.500 to 0.737 (p<0.001).

Conclusions The Korean version of the AES is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring patients’ expectancies regarding acupuncture treatment in the Korean population.

  • Acupuncture
  • Primary Care
  • Public Health

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