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Measuring pain
  1. Adrian White
  1. Dept of Complementary Medicine, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Exeter, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter EX2 4NT (UK)


    Accurate outcome measures are important both in clinical practice and in research. Measurement of pain should include intensity, relief-seeking behaviour and changes in function. Beliefs and attitudes to pain are of crucial importance and various instruments for assessing these are discussed. Primary outcome measures used in clinical trials must be valid, reliable, specific and sensitive.

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